Item Synonyms Description
Cabernet franc Should be considered as an alternative or a supplement to Cabernet Sauvignon. It is the most cold hardy V. vinifera variety we have tested. The fruit ripens earlier and has produced quality wines more consistently than has that of Cabernet Sauvignon.
Cabernet Sauvignon One of the most cold hardy and disease resistant V. vinifera varieties. Although late ripening, satisfactory levels of sugar in most New York production areas are usually attained. However, sugar alone does not determine wine quality, and consistent superior wine quality has only been achieved in the warmer production areas.
Calmeria These pale green, oval grapes are so elongated that they are sometimes called Lady Finger grapes. They have a mildly sweet flavor, comparatively thick skin, and a few small seeds.
Canadice more winter hardy than most seedless grapes, although trunk injury has occurred on some sites. It produces medium clusters with small red berries that are similar to Delaware in flavor and appearance. With cordon training systems and careful management, Canadice clusters may average 0.5 lb., and the vines can be extremely productive. Fruit rot is a problem in wet years because the clusters are excessively compact.
Candice red-skinned, seedless, small, oval fruit with juicy flesh and mild red grapey flavor. Ripens mid-season.
Cardinal A cross between the Flame Tokay and the Ribier, these large, dark red grapes have a pearly gray finish, a full, fruity flavor, and few seeds.
Cascade (Seibel 13053) A productive and moderately hardy variety. The medium to large loose clusters ripen early. Bird damage is often a problem. Wines are generally light in color and body with low acidity. Because of its susceptibility to soil borne virus diseases and generally low wine quality, acreage has declined dramatically since 1975.
Catawba Second to the Concord in popularity, the purplish-red Catawba is named for a river in Maryland, where it was discovered in the 1820s. It is a medium-sized, oval, seeded grape with an intense, sweet flavor. The Catawba is mainly used to make juices and is rarely found in the market as a table grape.
Cayuga White Named at Geneva in 1972, is one of the most productive and disease resistant varieties grown in New York. Its wine has been highly rated, having medium body, and good balance. An important positive attribute is its versatility; it lends itself to making semi-sweet wines emphasizing the fruity aromas, and is also made as a dry, less fruity wine with oak aging. When harvested early, it may produce a very attractive sparkling wine with good acidity, good structure, and pleasant aromas. When over-ripe, however, it can develop strong hybrid aromas with slight American overtones. The excellent cultural characteristics and high wine quality indicate an important future for this variety in New York.
Chambourcin (Joannes-Seyve 26-205) A late ripening grape which may produce a highly rated red wine when fruit fully matures. It requires a long growing season and a site less subject to low winter temperatures. The large, moderately loose bunches set medium sized blue berries. The vine is very productive and cluster thinning is required.
Champagne These are not the dried fruit of the currant plant, but a mispronunciation of the grape’s name, Corinth.
Chancellor (Seibel 7053) Once widely planted in France for table wine production. It is moderately cold hardy and productive, but requires cluster thinning. In terms of wine quality, Chancellor is among the better French-American varieties. Planting might be more widespread if the clusters were less susceptible to downy mildew and the foliage less susceptible to powdery mildew.
Chardonel (Plant patent 7860) was named by Cornell University in 1990 due to superior performance in Michigan and Arkansas. Cold hardiness has been nearly as good as for Seyval in New York, but good locations with long growing seasons are required to fully ripen the fruit. This cross of Seyval x Chardonnay produces an excellent wine when fully ripened, with fruit aromas characteristic of Chardonnay and Seyval. The potential for sparkling wine production appears to be good.
Chardonnay The most widely planted V. vinifera variety in New York. Relative to other V. vinifera varieties, it is cold hardy, but not so hardy as White Riesling or Cabernet franc. Its advantages include very high wine quality for both still and sparkling table wines; early and reliable fruit and wood maturity; and moderate vigor. The primary disadvantage is relatively high susceptibility to Botrytis bunch rot. For that reason, the use of vertical training combined with summer pruning and leaf removal have often produced superior results. Of the several clones tested at Geneva, we have found the locally available New York clone to be superior to those from Foundation Plant Materials Service of California. Those clones tend to set excessive crops of very compact clusters which rot easily and do not ripen reliably. Their vegetative growth is excessive and winter cold injury often is the result.
Chasselas red-skinned, seedless, plump, juicy fruit.
Chelois (Seibel 10878) Wine quality ranks highly among the French-American hybrids. It has, however, experienced a major decline in acreage in New York as demand for red wine decreased during the 1980's. There has been a resurgence of interest in Chelois in the early 1990's as consumer interest in red wine again increased. Chelois is suitable for blending with other red hybrids (Chambourcin, Baco noir and Chancellor) or V. vinifera varieties. Vines are healthy, vigorous and productive, but require cluster thinning to prevent overcropping. Berry splitting and subsequent bunch rots may be severe in some years. Because of susceptibility to winter damage, Chelois should be planted on better sites. Small blue-black berries are borne on compact, medium-sized clusters.
Christmas Rose dark red, seeded, large, oval fruit that is very crunchy with a juicy, sweet fruity flavor. Ripens late midseason, late summer to mid-winter.
Colobel (Seibel 8357) produces a heavily pigmented juice useful for blending as a coloring agent. Wine quality by itself is poor. Vines are very productive but just slightly cold hardy. The large clusters of blue-black berries ripen late.
Concord This variety originated in the 1840s near the Massachusetts town whose name it bears. A typical labrusca grape, Concords are round, blue-black grapes with a powdery bloom. Their thick skin and heady, sweet aroma surpass their bland-to-sour flavor. They are most commonly used in grape preserves and juice. Grapes sold as “white Concords” are actually Niagaras.
Concord Seedless similar in flavor and texture to Concord, but is unrelated. The clusters and berries are much smaller than those of Concord. The fruit matures earlier, has high flavor, and makes excellent pies and preserves. Productivity is erratic, and it is not recommended for commercial planting. In warm years, the variety produces fully developed seeds.
Crimson Seedless European; seedless red fruit; for fresh eating, raisins; ripens late; cane prune.